A critique of the summary of “Latent Feature Vulnerability Rankings of CVSS Vectors”

Update: Corren McCoy has written a wonderful response to this blog where she goes into more detail about her conclusions as well as citing more portions of the original research that led to her conclusions. As she notes, there are several layers of condensing the original research at play here, which can dilute and distort the original research. In her follow-up she breaks down each of these areas that I address below. If you continue reading my blog below, please read her reply after to get a better picture. Thank you!


What do you think of this?” It always starts out simple. A friend asked this question of an article titled Summary of “Latent Feature Vulnerability Rankings of CVSS Vectors”. This study is math heavy and that is not my jam. But vulnerability databases are, and that includes the CVE ecosystem which encompasses NVD. I am also pretty familiar with limitations of the CVSS scoring system and colleagues at RBS have written extensively on them.

I really don’t have the time or desire to dig into this too heavily, but my response to the friend was “immediately problematic“. I’ll cliff notes some of the things that stand out to me, starting with the first graphic included which she specifically asked me about.

  • The header graphic displays the metrics for the CVSSv3 scoring system, but is just labeled “CVSS”. Not only is this sloppy, it belies an important point of this summary that the paper’s work is based on CVSSv2 scores, not CVSSv3. They even qualify that just below: “We should note the analysis conducted by Ross et al. is based upon the CVSS Version 2 scoring system…
  • Ross et al. note that many exploits exist without associated CVE-IDs. For example, only 9% of the Symantec data is associated with a CVE-ID. The authors offered additional caveats related to their probability calculation.” That sounds odd, but it is readily explained above when they summarize what that data is: “Symantec’s Threat Database (SYM): A database extracted from Symantec by Allodi and Massacci that contains references to over 1000 vulnerabilities.” First, that data set contains a lot more than vulnerabilities. Second, if Symantec is really sitting on over 900 vulnerabilities that don’t have a CVE ID, then as a CNA they should either assign them an ID or work with MITRE to get an ID assigned. Isn’t that the purpose of CVE?
  • Ross et al. use four datasets reporting data on vulnerabilities and CVSS scores…” and then we see one dataset is “Exploit Database (Exploit-DB): A robust database containing a large collection of vulnerabilities and their corresponding public exploit(s).” Sorry, EDB doesn’t assign CVSS scores so the only ones that would be present are ones given by the people disclosing the vulnerabilities via EDB, some of whom are notoriously unreliable. While EDB is valuable in the disclosure landscape, serving as a dataset of CVSS scores is not one of them.
  • About 2.7% of the CVE entries in the dataset have an associated exploit, regardless of the CVSS V2 score.” This single sentence is either very poorly written, or it is all the evidence you need that the authors of the paper simply don’t understand vulnerabilities and disclosures. With a simple search of VulnDB, I can tell you at least 55,280 vulnerabilities have a CVE and a public exploit. There were 147,490 live CVE IDs as of last night meaning that is almost 38% that have a public exploit. Not sure how they arrived at 2.7% but that number should have been immediately suspect.
  • In other words, less than half of the available CVSS V2 vector space had been explored despite thousands of entries…” Well sure, this statement doesn’t qualify one major reason for that. Enumerate all the possible CVSSv2 metric combinations and derive their scores, then look at which numbers don’t show up on that list. A score of 0.1 through 0.7 is not possible for example. Then weed out the combinations that are extremely unlikely to appear in the wild, which is most that have “Au:M” as an example, and it weeds out a lot of possible values.
  • Only 17 unique CVSS vectors described 80% of the NVD.” Congrats on figuring out a serious flaw in CVSSv2! Based on the 2.7% figure above, I would immediately question the 80% here too. That said, there is a serious weighting of scores primarily in web application vulnerabilities where e.g. an XSS, SQLi, RFI, LFI, and limited code execution could all overlap heavily.
  • Input: Vulnerabilities (e.g., NVD), exploit existence, (e.g., Exploit-DB), the number of clusters k” This is yet another point where they are introducing a dataset they don’t understand and make serious assumptions about. Just because something is posted to EDB does not mean it is a public exploit. Another quick search of VulnDB tells us there are at least 733 EDB entries that are actually not a vulnerability. This goes back to the reliability of the people submitting content to the site.
  • The authors note their approach outperforms CVSS scoring when compared to Exploit-DB.” What does this even mean? Exploit-DB does not do CVSS scoring! How can you compare their approach to a site that doesn’t do it in the first place?

Perhaps this summary is not well written and the paper actually has more merit? I doubt it, the summary seems like it is comprehensive and captures key points, but I don’t think the summary author works with this content either. Stats and math yes. Vulnerabilities no.

Search Speak for Automaton

Alternate titles for this blog could be “Doodle Transition for Machina” perhaps! For at least a decade I have thought about just such an application and today I have Google Translate for Android. Load, aim, and it will process the text and translate on screen for you. Given the state of technology you would think it would be amazing by now, and it sometimes is.

The success largely depends on the language and that can also be seen in using translate.google.com, where some languages will translate fairly cleanly and others are very rough. One language I have to translate frequently is Chinese (simplified) and it is problematic for many things including company names and technical terms. With that in mind, I would expect it to translate with the same issues via the Google Translate app, and more specifically, do so consistently.

Since I am writing this, you know what’s coming…

This is the result of holding the phone up to a mail label from Japan. That’s all! Just moving the phone ever so slightly by tilting it or moving it half an inch closer / farther will make it change the translation. I think it finally got it a bit correct on that last one since the envelope didn’t contain anything living.

Hopefully the translation technology from Google will advance more quickly on Asian languages. Until then, I am just glad I didn’t get any “Sunrise Holy Poop” in that envelope.

Commentary on Radware’s Top Web Exploits of 2020

At the close of each year we see at least one article covering the top vulnerabilities / exploits from the prior year. This is usually written on the back of having large detection networks across the Internet that get a comprehensive view of exploitation. It’s a great way to get real intelligence for criminal hacking activity. Unfortunately, we often see a breakdown when it comes to conveying that information in a useful manner. I know there is an argument to be made that the companies releasing such blogs are primarily after PR, sure. But they also have an opportunity to help their clients and the rest of the world by ensuring the blogs contain more useful and actionable information.

For this commentary, I’ll examine Radware’s blog, “The Top Web Service Exploits in 2020” published December 23, 2020 and covered almost verbatim by Security Magazine on January 5, 2021. I don’t have a view into exploit activity itself, but I do have a good view into the vulnerability disclosure landscape that is a cornerstone of this commentary.

We’ll start by setting a few basic ideas for mutual understanding for any such blog. First, each exploit should be tied to a unique vulnerability or it should explain it is an exploit chain and clearly delineate each vulnerability in the chain or explain what it represents if not a pure vulnerability. Second, it should provide at least one external reference for each vulnerability; either a CVE ID, vendor advisory, or commonly accepted third-party advisory such as US-CERT or another similar body. This is what allows the reader to quickly determine if their organization has patched against the vulnerability or not. If I have to spend considerable time trying to determine which vulnerability is being described, many organizations may be at a complete loss trying to figure it out.

With that, let’s look at the top 10 exploited vulnerabilities in 2020, according to Radware, and try to figure out some additional information for perspective. I will also be very clear that Radware’s blog is extremely frustrating and not immediately helpful, instead requiring a lot of extra work. The fact that they only attributed three exploits to a CVE ID is a dismal commentary on the CVE ecosystem. This analysis of their analysis will server as a reminder that comprehensive vulnerability intelligence is the foundation of any good security program.


Service Exploit #1: /ws/v1/cluster/apps/new-application

Based on their description, this appears to match VulnDB 184750 “Apache Hadoop YARN ResourceManager REST API Request Handling Remote Command Execution“. The first thing of interest is it was disclosed on October 19, 2016 and does not have a CVE assignment over four years later. No wonder many organizations aren’t aware of this vulnerability and have not sought out their own remediation strategy.

Service Exploit #2: /manager/html

This is summarized as “Apache Tomcat Manager Application Upload Authenticated Code Execution” and goes on to describe it as “This module can be used to execute a payload on Apache Tomcat servers that have an exposed “manager” application. The payload is uploaded as a WAR archive containing a JSP application using a POST request against the /manager/html/upload component.

Despite this description, that does not cleanly map to any vulnerability in VulnDB. The closest matches are CVE-2017-12615 and CVE-2017-12617 which is an abstraction for different platforms, but fundamentally “Apache Tomcat HTTP PUT Method JSP File Upload Remote Code Execution“. On the surface this is a match with Apache Tomcat, JSP application, and POST request to achieve code execution. However, those two CVEs cover a JSP file upload, not a WAR archive, and do not mention the /manager/html/upload component. So we’re left wondering if the exploit described is simply a misconfiguration scenario (i.e. intended functionality not secured) or an actual disclosed vulnerability.

Service Exploit #3: /level/15/exec/-/sh/run/CR

Based on the description, this is a misconfiguration scenario where an administrator sets up a Cisco router with the HTTP admin interface enabled, but without password protection. This allows an attacker to use the legitimate functionality to run arbitrary commands.

Service Exploit #4: /admin/assets/js/views/login.js

Radware says this “resource belongs to Sangoma FreePBX code and it looks like the attackers are trying to detect vulnerable FreePBX servers and exploit one of the known vulnerabilities.” The first issue is that script doesn’t immediately track to a VulnDB entry based on titles, which reflect the script name typically. However, let’s consider the URL being seen: … login.js. Rather than attempting to exploit “one of the known vulnerabilities“, I would suggest instead they are trying default credentials. At least back around 2000, the tried-and-true default credentials of admin/admin were all you needed to access the interface.

This one is curious to me because presumably a company that was detecting exploit traffic and could see e.g. POST requests as demonstrated in Service Exploit #2, would also see that the attackers were trying the default credentials. So we’re left with Service Exploit #4 being of little help and only creating confusion over what is being exploited.

Service Exploit #5: /ftptest.cgi?loginuse=&loginpas=

Radware attributes this to “many cheap Wireless IP web cameras use the same genetic code based on the GoAhead code (the tiny, embedded web server).” This tracks cleanly with VulnDB 181032 “Axis Multiple Products axis-cgi/ftptest.cgi Multiple Parameters Remote Command Execution Weakness“. This is actually a fun rabbit hole as this disclosure originally comes from an audit of a AXIS A1001 Network Door Controller and exploitation of this issue requires privileged access to the management interface. With that in mind, we’re back to a default credential scenario that may be the actual issue. Back in 2001, defaults for Axis network cameras were covered by CVE-2001-1543.

[Update: Z Balazs points out that this finding is likely due to Persirai botnet activity and links to more information.]

Service Exploit #6: /service/extdirect

This is the only one of the ten exploits covered that they include a CVE ID for. CVE-2019-7238 maps to VulnDB 198437 “Nexus Repository Manager /service/extdirect Insufficient Access Control Request Handling Remote Code Execution“. But, is that really the right ID? If we look at CVE-2020-10204 we are given a very brief summary of “Sonatype Nexus Repository before 3.21.2 allows Remote Code Execution” and a link to the vendor advisory. However, VulnDB 226228 also maps to this and is summarized as “Nexus Repository Manager /service/extdirect Request Handling Remote Command Execution“. We immediately see the /service/extdirect from Radware’s finding in both titles. The vendor’s advisory does not include this endpoint though, but we find it in this exploit published on GitHub that tracks with the CVE-2020-10204 and we see it in a different exploit for CVE-2019-7238.

CVE-2019-7238 was fixed in Nexus Repository Manager version 3.15.0 and CVE-2020-10204 was fixed in version 3.21.2. Due to the vague vendor advisories it difficult to tell if this was a regression situation or something else. But, the CVE-2020-10204 vendor advisory gives us the interesting bit in the context of exploitation: “The vulnerability allows for an attacker with an administrative account on NXRM to execute arbitrary code by crafting a malicious request to NXRM.” That is an important distinction! So this is likely CVE-2019-7238 as Radware says, unless there are default credentials which would allow for exploiting CVE-2020-10204 as well.

Looking at the NVD entry for CVE-2020-10204 we also see that they scored this incorrectly for their CVSSv3 score, as ‘Privileges Required‘ should be ‘High‘, notLow‘ as they have it.

Service Exploit #7: /solr/admin/info/system?wt=json

For this one, we get an Apache Bug ID (SOLR-4882) and CVE-2013-6397 as references which is great. That said, it would be very helpful if Radware would link to these resources to make it easier for their readers.

Service Exploit #8: /vendor/phpunit/phpunit/src/Util/PHP/eval-stdin.php

This is the third exploit they match to an ID, CVE-2017-9841 and it was disclosed June 27, 2017. Another good reminder that software with disclosed vulnerabilities and vendor solutions are not being applied, causing many organizations to become low-hanging fruit in the exploit world.

One little nitpick is that the full path they include is likely not how this would manifest on a server. Everything after “src” would be the endpoint being scanned presumably: /Util/PHP/eval-stdin.php

Service Exploit #9: /hudson

With this, we run into another mess and rabbit hole. Radware summarizes this as “Hudson continuous integration tool – multiple vulnerabilities” and further describes Hudson as “a continuous integration tool written in Java, which runs in a servlet container, such as Apache Tomcat or the GlassFish application server. Over the years the project was replaced by Jenkins. The final release. 3.3.3 was on February 15, 2016. Today Hudson is no longer maintained and was announced as obsolete in February 2017.

Based on this description, this could be any one of at least 50 vulnerabilities going back to February, 2014, one of which does not have a CVE ID. 41 of these are in Jenkins software which is mentioned above.

Other Service Exploits

This is a curious conclusion to the “top 10” list, as it states “In addition to the new items that we covered in this list, we have also seen items that we already saw and covered in our previous blog Top 10 Web Service Exploits in 2019 such as /ctrlt/DeviceUpgrade_1, /TP/public/index.php and /nice%20ports%2C/Tri%6Eity.txt%2ebak.

That isn’t exactly a #10 on this list, rather a catch-all for “other stuff we saw including…“. The first listed tracks with VulnDB 170573 “Huawei HG532 Routers /ctrlt/DeviceUpgrade_1 NewStatusURL Element Remote Command Execution (Satori)” which is notable as it is used in Satori, a Mirai botnet variant.

The second tracks with VulnDB 194379 “ThinkPHP /public/index.php call_user_func_array() Function vars[1][] Parameter Remote Code Execution“. Note the different exploit path and we see it can actually be exploited via several endpoints according to analysis of the vulnerability by Knownsec 404 Team.

The third doesn’t immediately track with an entry in VulnDB. Radware gives us “/nice%20ports%2C/Tri%6Eity.txt%2ebak” which we can decode to a more friendly “/nice ports,/Trinity.txt.bak“. A quick Google for that request finds a blog from Dragos titled “Threat Hunting With Python Part 2: Detecting Nmap Behavior with Bro HTTP Logs” explaining this request:

The request for “/nice ports,/Trinity.txt.bak” comes from Nmap’s service detection routine testing how a server handles escape characters within a URI. The actual request is “GET /nice%20ports%2C/Tri%6Eity.txt%2ebak HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n”.

So this isn’t an actual exploit, rather, it indicates that attackers are using the Nmap port scanner. This is a good reminder that “exploit scanning” doesn’t always cleanly map to a specific vulnerability.


Detecting exploitation is critical for every organization. Doesn’t matter if it is on-premises devices or a managed service-based detection. What is more critical is having comprehensive and timely vulnerability intelligence that can turn what you detect into actionable information. This is how you not only detect, but evaluate and remediate, assuming of course the vulnerability is known to the vendor or a mitigation can be enacted.

December 2020 Reviews

[A summary of my movie and TV reviews from last month, posted to Attrition.org, mixed in with other reviews.]


The Queen’s Gambit (2020)
Rating: 5/5 check it out mate
Reference(s): IMDB Listing || Netflix
This miniseries, based on a 1983 book with the same name, is a fictional story about a chess prodigy turned master. It has the feeling of a real story and the producing, sets, and acting strongly lend to this. The main character, played by Anya Taylor-Joy, does an epic job playing a character who has personality quirks and addiction issues. The story is set many decades ago and gives a good reminder of the expectations about women in society. While chess may not seem to be a good basis for a fast-pace drama, the series does a wonderful job maintaining a good pace. I highly recommend this series for everyone.


Tenet (2020)
Rating: 5/5 – Action-packed mind-fuck
Reference(s): IMDB Listing
OK, you have to see Tenet. I think i liked it a lot? But I won’t be sure until I see it a second time. At least. Maybe a third time? It is a very cerebral movie and it makes Inception look like a cartoon in some ways. There are several layers and I think on a second watch I will probably notice a lot of things that would have helped keep up / understand along the way the first time through. Things that are better revealed toward the end as the movie progresses and evolves that will potentially make it more enjoyable the second time around. Very neat movie; great casting, great acting, and it really draws you in.


Ted Lasso (2020) [Apple TV]
Rating: 5/5 better than a biscuit, which is a cookie
Reference(s): IMDB Listing || Apple
This comedy from Apple TV stars Jason Sudeikis as “Ted Lasso”, an American football coach recruited to coach a British football (soccer) team. It’s basically Gomer Pyle (Lasso) meets Major League (plot) to start and it delivers. Sudeikis does a wonderful job playing the always upbeat transplant assisted by coach Beard (Brendan Hunt) as they are immersed in a new culture and new sport at the same time. It’s not a sports show at all, it’s just about the people and interactions with goofy analogies and quick wit. Very light and well-done comedy, worth the watch.


Devs (2020) [Hulu]
Rating: 4.9/5 I have seen what perfection has wrought
Reference(s): IMDB Listing || Amazon
You think you have seen interesting or compelling tech company drama? You haven’t until you watch this, and you will. You will understand the concept of quantum computing before you start the show and you will embrace the many-worlds theory. You find this review confusing now but it will become clear, until it doesn’t again. And then you will find yourself the god in the machine while you ponder the implications of when computing power goes too far. You will then enjoy your new state of enlightenment and make better choices.

Described as a drama/thriller when mindfuck is more apt. This show does a great job of making you think about serious implications that quantum computing could bring. While it is certainly sci-fi in the level of computing power suggested, it creates a nice vehicle to let us have a glimpse into what “quantum supremacy” might mean.


Marauders (2016)
Rating: 4.5/5 But i’m a sucker for heist flicks
Reference(s): IMDB Listing || Amazon
Bruce Willis, Christopher Meloni, and Dave Bautista in a cops and robbers movie and somehow I completely missed this movie existed until I saw it on a Netflix scroll?! As a fan of the genre and generally not too critical of such movies, this one was surprisingly good. None of the acting stood out particularly but none of it was bad. A couple extra decent actors and the movie came together pretty well. Until halfway through I was wondering which way it would go as far as the “who done it” goes. The ending? Not how I would have played it out. If you like the genre, it’s worth a watch.


Fatman (2020)
Rating: 4/5 who let him make movies again?
This movie is a light-hearted take on Christmas and the failures of Santa, at least through the eyes of Walter Goggins’ character. This is kind of a comeback movie for Mel Gibson after his numerous personal failures, some that make it ironic with him playing a very Christian character while personally being a drunk and hating Jews / black people. Gibson’s last bit makes it all the more surprising that the amazing Marianne Jean-Baptiste would sign on to play his wife giving a modern interracial Claus family. Really surprising that despite his history that his career freeze has “thawed” as they say in the industry and that he is being given a second chance. While he can be a great actor, essentially bringing the same character “Porter” from Payback (1999) to play Santa, I have to wonder is Hollywood so hurting for actors that they would accept him back after his sordid history?

Oh sorry, enough of that shitbag that can act well. Fun movie, two great actors as main characters, fun and simple story, it really brings the true spirit of Christmas in my eyes. Think [generic assassin movie] + Toys + [cynical Christmas movie] and you know what are you in for. Worth a watch, but don’t pay for it which shows support for Gibson. Find another way to watch it for free and then find a way to support Baptiste and Goggins directly instead. Did I mention fuck Gibson?


The Midnight Sky (2020)
Rating: 2.5/5 The movie belongs on a fiery earth
Reference(s): IMDB Listing || Netflix
Based on a book I didn’t read, this movie adaptation brings some star power with Felicity Jones and George Clooney. Without spoiling, the movie screamed “this is not what it seems” from the beginning so the ending was not as impactful as it could have been. Earth on fire and nearly uninhabitable? Sure! A two (?!) year voyage to the nearest habitable planet outside the solar system? OK! Man losing supplies then falling into arctic water and surviving? Prepare to suspend disbelief in the worst way. Overall, I suspect this is a case where the movie just didn’t do the book justice and fell short.

[Update: @_pronto_ pointed out they traveled to a moon of Jupiter, not outside the solar system. But still, a new moon of Jupiter that we didn’t know about is a viable alternative to Earth and Mars apparently isn’t?]


2067 (2020)
Rating: 2.5 / 5 – Science friction is more like it
Reference(s): IMDB Listing
For fans of the sci-fi genre, I don’t know if I should recommend 2067 or not. On one hand I like near-term sci-fi and I like dystopian films, which this offers both of. On the other, there are quite a few annoying bits about this, primarily the cast. I didn’t give two shits about anyone and most were annoying enough that I wanted them to die. Throw in a couple completely illogical things to advance the plot, a sign of bad writing in my opinion, and it just didn’t mesh well. It was good enough that, a ways in, I was willing to stick with it just to see how it ended. Recommend for watching while working, doing a puzzle, or falling asleep to.


The Jesus Rolls (2019)
Rating: 2/5 between 7-10p split, don’t watch
Reference(s): IMDB Listing || Amazon
Did you know there was a spin-off to The Big Lebowski? Neither did I until recently. It follows a brief part of Jesus’ life, but not really his life bowling unfortunately. This is basically the story of two hapless and idiot guys on the lowest-end crime spree you can imagine. The humor is also some of the lowest-end too; there wasn’t that much to laugh about as the bit comedy was lacking overall. I’d pass on this and re-watch the dude. On the upside, we do learn the story behind the sex offender registry.


War Inc (2008)
Rating: 1/5 Disown the “spiritual cousin”
Reference(s): IMDB Listing || Amazon
John Cusack plays an assassin in this movie co-starring Joan Cusack and Dan Aykroyd … no, he does in this movie too. According to Wikipedia, Joan Cusack said, “.. in a way, it was a Grosse Pointe Blank 2” while John Cusack said it was a “spiritual cousin to Grosse Pointe Blank”. Sure, I can see that but it isn’t nearly as amusing. Intended to be political comedy & commentary (comedary?) it comes across as a cliché to other cliché films while borrowing from characters from the prior film. Rather than go with more subdued humor around a military presence in a fictional Middle Eastern country, they opted to go over-the-top and it really detracted from the potential. Skip this, (re)watch GPB instead.

Five Dollar Security; You Get What You Pay For

The old phrase “If it looks too good to be true, it probably is” is very common, and usually well founded. After seeing an offer for a $5 “security status” of a website, we just had to test it out. Since the service is being offered by a Certified Ethical Hacker (C|EH) with 13 years of experience, who has “wrote professional tools for the job”, we expected the results of a commercial vulnerability scanner such as Nessus, Nexpose, or OpenVAS at the very least.

Consider what “vick2011” is offering: a comprehensive report, recommendations and information on how to keep your site secure, and information on keeping your site updated. All of this will typically take less than 24 hours, and it’s only five bucks!

I will use my professional skills as a Certified Ethical Hacker to provide you with a professional report of the security status of your website for $5

Certified Ethical Hacker, with over 13 years experience. Will provide you with a comprehensive report stating the security issues and weak points on your website. You will be provided with a report regarding this information. You will also receive recommendations and information on how to keep your website safe and secure, and keeping it updated. This service should take less than 24 hours as I have wrote professional tools for the job.

Given how good of a deal this is, we were willing to look past vick2011’s 67% approval rating for this service. Looking at vick2011’s profile, s/he certainly seemed to have plenty of technical experience!

However, we were a little hesitant about parting with this money after we saw that vick2011 also offered a wide variety of other services. How could such an all-around technical master afford to give away such valuable services for five bucks?!

One more look at vick2011’s busty avatar and we were convinced. Without further hesitation, we retained his/her services:

Not a day later, our report was ready. vick2011 was a consummate professional, delivering the report in Microsoft Word format (download at your own risk!), rather than PDF. For our loyal readers, we have converted it into a PDF file for your peace of mind. As you can see, attrition.org passed with flying colors! Look at all those green checkmarks and suppress your jealousy. With such a comprehensive list of URLs that were scanned, we are confident this report is as thorough as he promised. We’ll ignore the fact that there are some 16,000 HTML pages spread across more than 2,000 directories, that couldn’t really matter. The web server details are spot on! Well, as far as relying on what the web server returns in the Server string; you can always trust that.

Suspiciously lacking in the report was the information on how to keep the web site more secure and updated properly. Perhaps since vick2011 found no vulnerabilities, we are magically secure today and for the rest of eternity! Out of morbid curiosity, we watched the web server logs during the period where vick2011 tested the server. We’d share with you those logs, but there were none. No probing for vulnerabilities, no IP address hit the list of URLs provided in the report, no requests for CGI programs, nothing. Rather than actually testing the server, vick2011 instead just relied on third-party utilities like sucuri.net’s scannerthe Phish Tank, and Google’s Safe Browsing site.

By this point, we were feeling pretty robbed of our hard earned five dollars. It takes a good ten to fifteen minutes to panhandle that much on Colfax! Needless to say, vick2011 ended up getting pretty negative feedback. A few days later, we checked back on our friend only to find the $5 security test now said this gig was deleted by the seller. In its place is what we assume to be the real vick2011:

Shockingly enough, he is only a “Freelance PHP Developer, with over 5 years experience.” Gone is the 13 year veteran Certified Ethical Hacker. Frowny face.

Dystopia Arrives

The dystopia genre has enjoyed a lot of attention the last decade with hits like The Hunger Games, Blade Runner 2049, and Automata as a few examples. To me, a dystopian film is set in the near future with a focus on society more than technology. In my late teens and early 20s I loved reading the cyberpunk genre which often was a dystopian view but also focused on technology as a carrier of the film, like the more recent Ready Player One does. So dystopian and cyberpunk often blend to me and is more about the focus and story that may set them apart.

One thing common in dystopian movies is the breakdown of society, typically at the hands of a tyrannical government that does not see all citizens as equal. In The Hunger Games, society was segregated into districts that enjoyed more or less comfort. Soldiers from the capitol enforced the rules and made sure that impoverished districts stayed that way while demanding their citizens provide resources and play in games to the death, for the entertainment of the wealthy. Even the trip to the capitol in a train showed the gap with extensive platters of food, the likes of which some contestants had never seen in their life. Their homes were in a district surrounded by fences with the penalty of death for escaping. Medical care was basically non-existent in some districts and there was no way to challenge the system as democracy and voting were a thing of the past.

Similar elements can be seen in many movies including Equilibrium, Divergent, Elysium, Code 8, and the classic Fahrenheit 451 which was recently remade. We see aspects of these fictional societies in our own and it makes the movies more compelling.

We see governments becoming more authoritarian, the wealth gap widen, and millions of people being left behind. Little bits here and there keep adding up and we don’t notice the slow boil until it is too late. But I have to wonder, when does our own society reach the point that it can be considered dystopian?

I think dystopia has arrived.


During the last year, the political climate has reached critical levels as tens of millions have become disenfranchised in one manner or another. With COVID-19 devastating the entire world, even so-called “first-world” countries like the United States have seen record levels of unemployment, over-burdened food banks, over-populated prisons rocked by the pandemic, disenfranchised voters waiting half a day to vote, hospitals over capacity and turning away patients, freezer trucks used as temporary morgues due to overflow, and record levels of eviction and unhoused families. I can’t think of a book or movie that portrays it, but the “homeless sweeps” enacted in many cities are straight out of a dystopian nightmare.

The rapidly growing ad-hoc homeless encampments we see in cities are growing steadily which can increase risk to residents and businesses. Home-owners perceive their risk of becoming a victim of crime increasing and lobby to have them removed from their neighborhood. As the homeless are forced to live in tents set up in the right-of-way in front of half a million dollar homes, resentment grows. If this continues we will see a boiling point happen and there might be a homeless uprising. What do they have to lose? Jail or prison isn’t ideal by any means but it does give them shelter and food which are jeopardized every day.

Protests rocked the United States leading many cities to have government buildings and businesses boarding up windows, hiring security, while many are going out of business as the uncontrolled pandemic ravages communities. We’ve seen more fences going up in protest areas, around public space, and even around police stations.

The central element to dystopian literature and film is the tyrannical government that looks out for the upper class and has little to no concern for the rest of society. That can certainly be increasingly seen in U.S. politics the last decade and even now, congress is arguing about giving citizens a $2000 stimulus after struggling to pass a $600 payment. Meanwhile the bills are bundled with other legislation and proposals that do everything but help citizens. As certain elements of the government seek to consolidate power the level of resentment and protest increases significantly, as we saw. This has led to stand-offs and clashes between angry tax-payers and disreputable police.

This becomes cyclical as protesters become more organized and police become more militarized. The methods of law enforcement began blending with military tactics long ago and in many cases local police have become almost indistinguishable from soldiers. Police departments have been purchasing military equipment for years, giving them both offensive and defensive gear including vehicles that are overkill.

Even without gear that is considerably overpowered, police departments have the outward appearance of not taking their oaths to heart. Thousands of videos of incidents in which police used excessive force on protesters and journalists flooded Twitter in 2020. The disproportionate and indiscriminate killing of minorities have added a level of anger and contempt we haven’t seen before. Demands range from simple reform to accountability changes to the total abolition of police departments.

Think about your favorite dystopian book or movie and what aspects of that society make it dystopian in the first place. Compare those same attributes to what we have seen in the United States in the last twelve months. When you do, you might reach the same conclusion that our society has crossed the line and we live in the dystopia we have paid to enjoy through fiction until now.

So again, I think dystopia has arrived.